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Campbell-Walsh Urology 3-Volume Set – 12th Edition PDF

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From the basic science underpinnings to the most recent developments in medical and surgical care, Campbell-Walsh-Wein Urology offers a depth and breadth of coverage you won’t find in any other urology reference. Now in three manageable volumes, the revised 12th Edition is a must-have text for students, residents, and seasoned practitioners, with authoritative, up-to-date content in an intuitively organized, easy-to-read format featuring key points, quick-reference tables, and handy algorithms throughout.

Instructions for online access……Page 17448
Title Page……Page 2
Table of Contents……Page 4
Copyright……Page 93
Dedication……Page 95
Preface……Page 97
Contributors……Page 99
Video Contents……Page 154
Volume I……Page 175
Part I Clinical Decision Making……Page 176
1 Evaluation of the Urologic Patient……Page 177
History……Page 178
Physical Examination……Page 204
Special Populations……Page 214
Conclusion……Page 216
References……Page 217
2 Evaluation of the Urologic Patient……Page 221
Urinalysis……Page 222
Chemical Examination of Urine……Page 226
Summary……Page 267
References……Page 268
3 Urinary Tract Imaging……Page 271
Conventional Radiography……Page 272
Radiation Management in Uroradiology……Page 274
Contrast Media……Page 278
Intravenous Urography……Page 298
Plain Abdominal Radiography……Page 300
Retrograde Pyelography……Page 303
Loopography……Page 307
Retrograde Urethrography……Page 309
Static Cystography……Page 311
Voiding Cystourethrogram……Page 313
Nuclear Scintigraphy……Page 315
Computed Tomography……Page 328
Magnetic Resonance Imaging……Page 340
Acknowledgments……Page 372
References……Page 373
4 Urinary Tract Imaging……Page 402
Brief History of Ultrasound in Urology……Page 403
Physical Principles……Page 406
Modes of Ultrasound……Page 420
Contrast Agents in Ultrasound……Page 429
Patient Safety……Page 432
Clinical Urologic Ultrasound……Page 434
Practice Accreditation……Page 465
Suggested Readings……Page 468
References……Page 469
5 Urinary Tract Imaging……Page 479
Principles of Single Photon and PET Imaging……Page 480
Functional Imaging of the Kidneys……Page 483
Infection Imaging……Page 494
Molecular Imaging of Genitourinary Malignancies……Page 496
References……Page 508
6 Assessment of Urologic and Surgical Outcomes……Page 520
Establishing a Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Effectiveness of Treatment and Improving Care in Urology……Page 522
Long-Term Disease Outcomes That Are Commonly Assessed in Urology……Page 525
Commonly Assessed Short-Term Outcomes……Page 537
Patient-Reported Outcomes……Page 546
Other Outcomes of Interest in Urology……Page 562
References……Page 565
7 Ethics and Informed Consent……Page 589
Medical Ethics……Page 590
Informed Consent……Page 597
References……Page 603
Part II Basics of Urologic Surgery……Page 606
8 Principles of Urologic Surgery……Page 607
Preoperative Evaluation……Page 608
Presurgical Testing……Page 609
Preoperative Cardiovascular Evaluation……Page 613
Pulmonary Evaluation……Page 616
Hepatobiliary Evaluation……Page 617
Special Populations……Page 619
Preparation for Surgery……Page 623
Intraoperative Management……Page 632
Acknowledgments……Page 660
Suggested Readings……Page 661
References……Page 662
9 Principles of Urologic Surgery……Page 676
Abdominal Incisions……Page 677
Anterior Approaches to the Kidney and Retroperitoneum……Page 685
Flank Incisions……Page 690
Inguinal Incisions……Page 694
Incisions for Specific Surgeries……Page 698
Suggested Readings……Page 707
References……Page 708
10 Principles of Urologic Surgery……Page 714
Patient Environment……Page 716
Blood Products……Page 722
Drains……Page 727
Suture Material and Incision Closure……Page 729
References……Page 739
11 Lower Urinary Tract Catheterization……Page 744
History……Page 746
Anatomic Considerations……Page 747
Indications for Lower Urinary Tract Drainage……Page 748
Technique of Urethral Catheterization……Page 750
Suprapubic Catheterization……Page 761
Difficult Catheterization……Page 764
Complications of Lower Urinary Tract Drainage……Page 770
References……Page 773
12 Fundamentals of Upper Urinary Tract Drainage……Page 777
Percutaneous Renal Access and Drainage……Page 779
Retrograde Renal Access and Drainage……Page 849
References……Page 855
13 Principles of Urologic Endoscopy……Page 895
Introduction……Page 897
History of Endoscopy……Page 898
Basic Equipment and Video-Endoscopic Systems……Page 900
Cystourethroscopy……Page 903
Upper-Tract Endoscopy……Page 917
Conclusion……Page 947
Suggested Readings……Page 948
References……Page 949
14 Fundamentals of Laparoscopic and Robotic Urologic Surgery……Page 961
Preoperative Preparation……Page 963
Operating Room……Page 969
Strategic Placement of Operative Team and Equipment……Page 972
Performing the Procedure……Page 980
Physiologic Considerations in the Adult……Page 1034
Complications and Troubleshooting in Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery……Page 1045
Training and Practicing Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery……Page 1080
Conclusion……Page 1088
Acknowledgment……Page 1089
Suggested Readings……Page 1090
References……Page 1093
15 Basic Energy Modalities in Urologic Surgery……Page 1122
Tissue Dissection and Cauterization……Page 1124
Intracorporeal Lithotripters……Page 1144
Pneumatic Lithotripsy……Page 1150
Ultrasonic Lithotripsy……Page 1156
Holmium:YAG and Erbium:YAG Laser Lithotripsy……Page 1160
Dual-Modality Lithotripters……Page 1171
Suggested Readings……Page 1176
References……Page 1179
16 Evaluation and Management of Hematuria……Page 1199
Classification and Timing of Hematuria……Page 1201
Microscopic Hematuria……Page 1202
Guideline-Based Evaluation of Patients With Microhematuria……Page 1211
Symptomatic Microscopic Hematuria……Page 1218
Gross Hematuria……Page 1219
Hemorrhagic Cystitis……Page 1220
Hematuria From Prostatic Origin……Page 1228
Urethral Bleeding……Page 1234
Hematuria Originating From the Upper Urinary Tract……Page 1237
Suggested Readings……Page 1242
References……Page 1243
17 Complications of Urologic Surgery……Page 1260
Classification of Complications……Page 1264
Physiologic Complications……Page 1267
Positional and Neuromuscular Complications……Page 1268
Urinary Complications……Page 1274
Urine Leaks After Upper Tract Urologic Surgery……Page 1275
Ureteral Injuries……Page 1281
Lower Tract Urinary Complications……Page 1288
Vascular Complications……Page 1295
Bowel Injuries……Page 1316
Conclusion……Page 1334
References……Page 1335
18 Urologic Considerations in Pregnancy……Page 1349
Physiologic Changes During Pregnancy……Page 1351
Physiologic Hydronephrosis of Pregnancy……Page 1358
General Considerations for Imaging of the Pregnant Patient……Page 1360
General Concepts for Surgical Management of the Pregnant Patient……Page 1362
General Concepts of Urologic Medication Administration During Pregnancy……Page 1365
Urolithiasis in Pregnancy……Page 1367
Pregnancy in Women With Congenital Urologic Conditions……Page 1375
Functional and Anatomic Urologic Concerns During Pregnancy……Page 1386
Urologic Malignancy During Pregnancy……Page 1389
Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy……Page 1394
Urologic Management of Placental Abnormalities……Page 1397
Acknowledgments……Page 1401
References……Page 1402
19 Intraoperative Consultation……Page 1425
Ethical Considerations……Page 1429
Decision Making……Page 1430
Documentation……Page 1434
Urethral Injury……Page 1437
Bladder Injury……Page 1440
Ureteral Injury……Page 1444
Renal Injury……Page 1452
Placental Cases……Page 1454
References……Page 1457
Part III Pediatric Urology……Page 1464
Section A Development and Prenatal Urology……Page 1465
20 Embryology of the Genitourinary Tract……Page 1466
Development of the External Genitalia……Page 1470
Development of the Female External Genitalia……Page 1480
Development of the Human Prostate……Page 1485
Development of the Human Seminal Vesicle……Page 1496
Development of the Gonads……Page 1497
Müllerian Structures (Female Internal Genitalia)……Page 1510
Development of the Ureter……Page 1530
Kidneys……Page 1538
Acknowledgment……Page 1556
Suggested Readings……Page 1557
References……Page 1558
21 Urologic Aspects of Pediatric Nephrology……Page 1582
Introduction……Page 1584
Renal Function, Fluid, and Electrolyte Homeostasis……Page 1585
Hematuria (Microscopic and Gross)……Page 1590
Proteinuria……Page 1594
Glomerular Disease……Page 1597
Tubulopathies……Page 1611
Cystic Renal Disease……Page 1615
Urolithiasis: Medical Management……Page 1618
Hypertension……Page 1623
Acute Kidney Injury……Page 1628
Chronic Kidney Disease……Page 1633
End-Stage Renal Disease: Dialysis and Renal Transplantation……Page 1638
Summary……Page 1644
Suggested Readings……Page 1645
References……Page 1647
22 Perinatal Urology……Page 1656
Prenatal Imaging……Page 1658
Grading Systems……Page 1662
Prenatal Multidisciplinary Consultations……Page 1669
Urinary Tract Dilation……Page 1672
Postnatal Evaluation and Management……Page 1685
Management Recommendations for Postnatal Urinary Tract Dilation……Page 1693
Key Conditions……Page 1699
Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction (Posterior Urethral Valve, Prune Belly Syndrome, Urethral Stenosis/Atresia)……Page 1709
Kidney Anomalies……Page 1717
Exstrophy (Bladder/Cloacal)……Page 1726
Urogenital Sinus/Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia……Page 1730
Perinatal Urgencies/Emergencies……Page 1734
References……Page 1748
Section B Basic Principles……Page 1770
23 Urologic Evaluation of the Child……Page 1771
Overview of Pediatric Urology……Page 1773
Imaging……Page 1775
Presentations by Genitourinary Region……Page 1784
Acknowledgments……Page 1824
References……Page 1825
24 Pediatric Urogenital Imaging……Page 1839
Technique……Page 1842
sonography……Page 1844
Magnetic Resonance Imaging……Page 1866
Conventional Radiography……Page 1871
Voiding Cystourethrography/Micturating Cystourethrogram……Page 1872
Computed Tomography……Page 1877
DMSA Renal Cortical Scintigraphy……Page 1880
Diuretic Renal Scintigraphy……Page 1881
Radionuclide Cystography……Page 1889
Radionuclide Testicular Scanning……Page 1891
Suggested Readings……Page 1892
References……Page 1894
25 Infection and Inflammation of the Pediatric Genitourinary Tract……Page 1907
Evaluation and Management of a Child With a Fever……Page 1909
Classification of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections……Page 1931
Diagnosis of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection……Page 1937
Management of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection……Page 1955
Management After Urinary Tract Infection……Page 1961
Sequelae of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections……Page 1967
Uncommon Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections……Page 1971
Suggested Readings……Page 1973
References……Page 1976
26 Core Principles of Perioperative Management in Children……Page 2012
Pediatric Anesthesia……Page 2014
Preoperative Assessment and Preparation for Surgery……Page 2017
Comorbidities: Perioperative Planning and Postoperative Considerations……Page 2026
ERAS Protocols……Page 2037
Laparoscopic Procedures……Page 2042
Opioid Use in Children……Page 2049
References……Page 2051
27 Principles of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery in Children……Page 2075
Advantages and Disadvantages of Minimally Invasive Surgery……Page 2077
Physiology of the Pneumoperitoneum……Page 2085
Patient Selection for Mimimally Invasive Surgery……Page 2091
Access……Page 2096
Approach……Page 2103
Equipment and Instrumentation……Page 2105
Complications of Minimally Invasive Surgery……Page 2114
Simulation Training and Evaluation……Page 2121
Conclusion……Page 2130
Suggested Readings……Page 2131
References……Page 2133
Section C Lower Urinary Tract Conditions……Page 2159
28 Clinical and Urodynamic Evaluation of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Children……Page 2160
Clinical Evaluation……Page 2162
Laboratory Testing……Page 2179
Urodynamic Evaluation……Page 2182
Evaluation Strategies for Specific Clinical Entities……Page 2202
Acknowledgments……Page 2207
Suggested Readings……Page 2208
References……Page 2209
29 Management Strategies for Vesicoureteral Reflux……Page 2225
Historical Perspective……Page 2227
Demographics……Page 2229
Inheritance and Genetics……Page 2234
Embryology of the Ureterovesical Junction……Page 2242
Functional Anatomy of the Antireflux Mechanism……Page 2243
Causes of Vesicoureteral Reflux……Page 2247
Urinary Tract Infection and Reflux……Page 2254
Grading of Reflux……Page 2255
Cortical Defects……Page 2260
Diagnosis and Evaluation of Vesicoureteral Reflux……Page 2272
Assessment of the Lower Urinary Tract……Page 2277
Assessment of the Upper Urinary Tract……Page 2284
Controversies in Usage of Invasive Investigations……Page 2292
Associated Anomalies and Conditions……Page 2295
Natural History and Management……Page 2306
References……Page 2327
30 Bladder Anomalies in Children……Page 2366
Congenital Bladder Anomalies……Page 2368
Acquired Bladder Anomalies in Children……Page 2389
Acknowledgments……Page 2394
References……Page 2395
31 Exstrophy-Epispadias Complex……Page 2405
Historical Aspects……Page 2408
Incidence and Inheritance……Page 2409
Embryology……Page 2412
Classic Bladder Exstrophy……Page 2416
Surgical Reconstruction of Bladder Exstrophy……Page 2439
Modern Initial Repair of Bladder Exstrophy: Outcomes and Results……Page 2482
Other Modern Exstrophy Repairs: Continence Outcomes……Page 2493
Exstrophy Reconstruction Failures and Complications……Page 2496
Transitional Exstrophy Patient: Adolescent and Adult Concerns……Page 2509
Continence……Page 2510
Male Concerns……Page 2511
Female Concerns……Page 2514
Quality of Life……Page 2517
Long-Term Adjustment Issues……Page 2518
Epispadias……Page 2521
Cloacal Exstrophy……Page 2536
Surgical Reconstruction of Cloacal Exstrophy……Page 2544
Long-Term Issues in Cloacal Exstrophy……Page 2556
Summary……Page 2558
Dedication……Page 2559
Acknowledgment……Page 2560
Suggested Readings……Page 2561
References……Page 2563
32 Prune-Belly Syndrome……Page 2597
Genetics……Page 2599
Embryology……Page 2600
Clinical Features of Prune-Belly Syndrome……Page 2601
Presentation……Page 2620
Evaluation and Management……Page 2625
Long-Term Outlook……Page 2647
Suggested Readings……Page 2651
References……Page 2653
33 Posterior Urethral Valves……Page 2670
Background……Page 2672
Epidemiology……Page 2676
Pathophysiology of Posterior Urethral Valves……Page 2678
Diagnosis……Page 2687
Clinical Presentation and Initial Management……Page 2694
Surgical Intervention……Page 2701
Management of Vesicoureteral Reflux……Page 2710
Bladder Dysfunction and Valve Bladder Syndrome……Page 2712
Prognostic Indicators for Renal Function……Page 2720
Transplantation in Valve Patients……Page 2722
Quality of Life With Posterior Urethral Valves……Page 2724
Anterior Urethral Valves……Page 2726
Urethral Atresia……Page 2728
Urethral Duplication……Page 2730
Urethrorrhagia……Page 2733
Urinary Fistula in Boys With Anorectal Malformation……Page 2735
Suggested Readings……Page 2738
References……Page 2739
34 Neuromuscular Dysfunction of the Lower Urinary Tract in Children……Page 2759
Neural Tube Defects……Page 2762
Management of Neuromuscular Dysfunction of the Lower Urinary Tract……Page 2788
Management of Vesicoureteral Reflux in Neuropathic Dysfunction of the Lower Urinary Tract……Page 2807
Lipomeningocele and Other Spinal Dysraphisms……Page 2811
Sacral Agenesis……Page 2819
Conditions of the Pelvis……Page 2826
Central Nervous System Insults……Page 2834
Conditions of the Brain (Tumors/Infarcts/Encephalopathies)……Page 2837
Conditions of the Spinal Cord……Page 2839
Suggested Readings……Page 2848
References……Page 2849
35 Functional Disorders of the Lower Urinary Tract in Children……Page 2900
Clinical Significance……Page 2902
Epidemiology……Page 2903
Self-Esteem and Quality-of-Life Issues……Page 2905
Comorbidities……Page 2907
Terminology……Page 2914
Daytime Urinary Incontinence and Bladder Dysfunction……Page 2915
Enuresis……Page 2932
Suggested Readings……Page 2952
References……Page 2953
36 Management of Defecation Disorders……Page 2978
Epidemiology and Classification of Disorders of Defecation……Page 2983
Management……Page 2999
Suggested Readings……Page 3023
References……Page 3025
37 Lower Urinary Tract Reconstruction in Children……Page 3039
“Functional” Urinary Tract……Page 3042
Patient Evaluation……Page 3047
Patient Preparation……Page 3050
Antireflux……Page 3052
Bladder Neck Reconstruction……Page 3058
Bladder Reconstruction……Page 3078
Augmentation Cystoplasty……Page 3079
Continent Urinary Diversion……Page 3123
Summary……Page 3142
Suggested Readings……Page 3144
References……Page 3146
Section D Upper Urinary Tract Conditions……Page 3200
38 Anomalies of the Upper Urinary Tract……Page 3201
Anomalies of Renal Number……Page 3203
Anomalies of Renal Ascent……Page 3232
Anomalies of Renal Form and Fusion……Page 3244
Anomalies of Renal Rotation……Page 3265
Anomalies of Renal Vasculature……Page 3269
Renal Artery Aneurysm……Page 3274
Anomalies of the Renal Collecting System……Page 3278
Acknowledgments……Page 3289
References……Page 3290
39 Renal Dysgenesis and Cystic Disease of the Kidney……Page 3327
Overview of Genetics……Page 3329
Renal Agenesis and Dysplasia……Page 3330
Hypoplasia and Hypodysplasia……Page 3335
Cystic Diseases of the Kidney……Page 3342
Autosomal Recessive (Infantile) Polycystic Kidney Disease……Page 3349
Autosomal Dominant (Adult) Polycystic Kidney Disease……Page 3356
Juvenile Nephronophthisis and Medullary Cystic Disease Complex……Page 3371
Other Inheritable Renal Cystic Diseases (Congenital Nephrosis)……Page 3375
Familial Hypoplastic Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease (Cortical Microcystic Disease)……Page 3376
Multiple Malformation Syndromes With Renal Cysts……Page 3377
Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney……Page 3393
Benign Multilocular Cyst (Cystic Nephroma)……Page 3401
Simple Cysts……Page 3407
Medullary Sponge Kidney……Page 3418
Sporadic Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease……Page 3422
Acquired Renal Cystic Disease……Page 3423
Calyceal Diverticulum (Pyelogenic Cyst)……Page 3430
Parapelvic and Renal Sinus Cysts……Page 3432
Acknowledgment……Page 3434
Suggested Readings……Page 3435
References……Page 3437
40 Pathophysiology of Urinary Tract Obstruction……Page 3472
Prevalence……Page 3474
Clinical Presentation of Obstruction……Page 3475
Progressive Renal Dysfunction……Page 3477
Definition of Obstruction……Page 3479
Diagnosis and Imaging……Page 3481
Pathological Changes of Obstruction……Page 3495
Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis……Page 3508
Hemodyamic Changes With Obstruction……Page 3522
Effects of Obstruction on Tubular Function……Page 3529
Egress of Urine From the Obstructed Kidney……Page 3533
Clinical Impact of Renal Obstruction……Page 3534
Treatment of Renal Obstruction……Page 3537
Suggested Readings……Page 3544
References……Page 3546
41 Ectopic Ureter, Ureterocele, and Ureteral Anomalies……Page 3591
Classification and Anatomic Description……Page 3593
Clinical Presentation……Page 3605
Evaluation……Page 3612
Clinical Management……Page 3630
Other Ureteral Anomalies……Page 3661
Suggested Readings……Page 3673
References……Page 3676
42 Surgery of the Ureter in Children……Page 3696
Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction……Page 3698
Vesicoureteric Reflux……Page 3725
Endoscopic Treatment of Vesicoureteral Reflux……Page 3760
Megaureter……Page 3770
Suggested Readings……Page 3781
References……Page 3783
43 Management of Pediatric Kidney Stone Disease……Page 3807
Extrarenal Manifestations……Page 3812
Management of Children and Adolescents With Kidney and Ureteral Stones……Page 3827
Shock Wave Lithotripsy……Page 3841
Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy……Page 3845
Laparoscopic and Robotic-Assisted Pyelolithotomy……Page 3852
References……Page 3857
Section E Genitalia……Page 3876
44 Management of Abnormalities of the External Genitalia in Boys……Page 3877
Normal Male External Genitalia……Page 3881
Penile Anomalies……Page 3884
Scrotal Anomalies……Page 3926
Vascular Lesions of the Genitalia……Page 3932
Hernia and Hydroceles……Page 3935
Acute Scrotum……Page 3950
Varicocele……Page 3968
Epididymal and Vasal Anomalies……Page 3981
Suggested Readings……Page 3982
References……Page 3986
45 Hypospadias……Page 4041
Embryology……Page 4043
Diagnosis of Hypospadias……Page 4048
Etiology of Hypospadias……Page 4056
Surgical Assessment……Page 4059
Advancement Procedures……Page 4090
Tubularization Techniques……Page 4095
Hypospadias Outcomes……Page 4140
Future……Page 4160
Suggested Readings……Page 4163
References……Page 4165
46 Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of the Undescended Testis……Page 4198
Introduction……Page 4200
Definitions……Page 4201
Etiology……Page 4203
Diagnosis……Page 4231
General Guidelines for Management……Page 4249
Medical Management……Page 4252
Surgical Management……Page 4256
Prognosis……Page 4266
Suggested Readings……Page 4278
References……Page 4280
47 Management of Abnormalities of the Genitalia in Girls……Page 4347
Female Genital Embryology……Page 4349
Evaluation and Classification of Female Genital Anomalies……Page 4354
Congenital Disorders of Female External Genitalia……Page 4357
Acquired Disorders of the Female External Genitalia……Page 4391
Suggested Readings……Page 4400
References……Page 4402
48 Disorders of Sexual Development……Page 4420
Normal Sexual Development……Page 4422
Abnormal Sexual Development……Page 4443
Evaluation and Management of the Newborn With Ambiguous Genitalia……Page 4445
Suggested Readings……Page 4507
References……Page 4509
Section F Reconstruction and Trauma……Page 4548
49 Surgical Management of Differences of Sexual Differentiation and Cloacal and Anorectal Malformations……Page 4549
Classification of Urogenital Sinus and Cloacal Anomalies……Page 4552
Surgical Reconstruction of Disorders of Sex Development and Urogenital Sinus……Page 4570
Surgical Reconstruction for Cloacal Malformations……Page 4604
Summary……Page 4617
Suggested Readings……Page 4618
References……Page 4619
50 Adolescent and Transitional Urology……Page 4638
Definitions……Page 4641
Patient Population……Page 4647
Setting Up a Service……Page 4648
Barriers to Transition……Page 4650
Clinical Delivery……Page 4654
Patient/Parent Preparation for Transition……Page 4655
Clinical Practice: Major Diagnoses……Page 4658
Male……Page 4666
Females Born With Exstrophy……Page 4670
Spina Bifida: the Neuropathic Bladder……Page 4673
Posterior Urethral Valves……Page 4677
Summary……Page 4679
Suggested Readings……Page 4680
References……Page 4681
51 Urologic Considerations in Pediatric Renal Transplantation……Page 4690
Pretransplant Assessment……Page 4692
Pretransplant Preparation……Page 4696
Transplantation……Page 4717
Complications……Page 4725
Summary……Page 4738
Suggested Readings……Page 4739
References……Page 4741
52 Pediatric Genitourinary Trauma……Page 4754
Renal Injuries……Page 4756
Indications for Renal Imaging……Page 4758
Imaging Studies for Diagnosis……Page 4760
Classification and Grading of Renal Injuries……Page 4763
Persistent or Delayed Bleeding……Page 4778
Operative……Page 4781
Ureteral Trauma……Page 4795
Bladder Injuries……Page 4801
Genital Injury in the Pediatric Population……Page 4812
References……Page 4821
Section G Oncology……Page 4844
53 Pediatric Urologic Oncology……Page 4845
Neuroblastoma……Page 4847
Wilms Tumor……Page 4876
References……Page 4921
54 Pediatric Urologic Oncology……Page 4977
Epidemiology and Syndromic Associations……Page 4979
Pathology and Molecular Biology……Page 4981
Presentation, Initial Evaluation and Management, Staging……Page 4985
Other Bladder Tumors……Page 5001
Female Genital Tract……Page 5007
Testicular Tumors……Page 5014
Paratesticular Rhabdomyosarcoma……Page 5029
Perineal Rhabdomyosarcoma……Page 5034
Suggested Readings……Page 5036
References……Page 5039
Volume II……Page 5067
Part IV Infections and Inflammation……Page 5068
55 Infections of the Urinary Tract……Page 5069
Definitions……Page 5071
Incidence and Epidemiology……Page 5077
Pathogenesis……Page 5080
Evaluation……Page 5108
Localization……Page 5120
Imaging……Page 5121
Microbiome……Page 5125
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria……Page 5131
Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy……Page 5139
Bladder Infections……Page 5158
Kidney Infections……Page 5191
Other Infections……Page 5242
Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock……Page 5247
Bacteriuria and Urinary Tract Infections in the Elderly……Page 5265
Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection……Page 5272
Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury……Page 5276
Kidney Transplant Recipients……Page 5282
Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Common Urologic Procedures……Page 5283
Acknowledgments……Page 5306
References……Page 5307
56 Inflammatory and Pain Conditions of the Male Genitourinary Tract……Page 5386
Prostatitis……Page 5388
Acute and Chronic Orchitis and Orchialgia……Page 5441
References……Page 5458
57 Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome and Related Disorders……Page 5503
A Brief History and Overview……Page 5505
Definition, Nomenclature, and Taxonomy……Page 5507
Historical Perspective of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: Early 1800S to 1970S……Page 5510
Voiding Symptoms and Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome……Page 5513
Epidemiology of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome……Page 5516
The Epidemiology of Hunner Lesions……Page 5519
Etiology……Page 5532
Pathology……Page 5568
Beyond the History, Physical Examination, and Urine Studies……Page 5579
Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome……Page 5590
Final Thoughts……Page 5629
Suggested Readings……Page 5630
References……Page 5632
58 Sexually Transmitted Diseases*……Page 5725
Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases……Page 5727
Urethritis……Page 5732
Epididymitis……Page 5740
Genital, Anal, and Perianal Ulcers……Page 5742
Anogenital Warts……Page 5763
Zika Virus……Page 5769
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)……Page 5773
Viral Hepatitis……Page 5788
Ectoparasitic Infections……Page 5797
Vaginitis……Page 5800
References……Page 5804
59 Cutaneous Diseases of the External Genitalia……Page 5828
Introduction to Basic Dermatology……Page 5830
Dermatologic Therapy……Page 5834
Allergic Dermatitis……Page 5838
Papulosquamous Disorders……Page 5848
Vesicobullous Disorders……Page 5864
Noninfectious Ulcers……Page 5871
Infections and Infestations……Page 5877
Neoplastic Conditions……Page 5901
Benign Cutaneous Disorders Specific to the Male Genitalia……Page 5915
Common Miscellaneous Cutaneous Disorders……Page 5919
Suggested Readings……Page 5926
References……Page 5928
60 Tuberculosis and Parasitic Infections of the Genitourinary Tract……Page 5966
Genitourinary Tuberculosis……Page 5968
Parasitic Infections of the Urogenital Tract……Page 6008
Suggested Readings……Page 6049
References……Page 6052
Part V Molecular and Cellular Biology……Page 6083
61 Basic Principles of Immunology and Immunotherapy in Urologic Oncology……Page 6084
Innate Immune System……Page 6087
Adaptive Immune System……Page 6093
Immune Editing Hypothesis……Page 6096
Chronic Inflammation and the Endogenous Immune Response to Genitourinary Cancers……Page 6098
Chronic Inflammation and the Immune Response to Bladder Cancer……Page 6099
Immune Microenvironment in Kidney Cancer……Page 6102
Chronic Inflammation and the Immune Response to Prostate Cancer……Page 6103
Immunotherapy for Genitourinary Cancers……Page 6105
Conclusions……Page 6124
Suggested Readings……Page 6125
References……Page 6127
62 Molecular Genetics and Cancer Biology……Page 6140
Tumor Suppressor Genes and Oncogenes……Page 6144
Cell Cycle Deregulation……Page 6158
DNA Methylation……Page 6172
DNA Damage and Repair……Page 6178
Genomic Alterations……Page 6186
Telomeres and Telomerase……Page 6222
Apoptosis……Page 6231
Stem Cells and Cancer……Page 6243
Checkpoint Inhibition……Page 6245
Microbiome and Cancer: the Metagenome……Page 6248
Suggested Readings……Page 6251
References……Page 6253
Part VI Reproductive and Sexual Function……Page 6331
63 Surgical, Radiographic, and Endoscopic Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System……Page 6332
Testis……Page 6334
Epididymis……Page 6347
Vas Deferens……Page 6354
Seminal Vesicles and Ejaculatory Ducts……Page 6359
Prostate……Page 6363
Urethra……Page 6373
Penis……Page 6383
Scrotum……Page 6393
Suggested Readings……Page 6395
References……Page 6396
64 Male Reproductive Physiology……Page 6406
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis……Page 6408
Epididymis……Page 6447
Ductus (Vas) Deferens……Page 6460
Seminal Vesicle and Ejaculatory Ducts……Page 6463
Spermatozoa……Page 6469
Summary……Page 6474
Suggested Readings……Page 6475
References……Page 6477
65 Integrated Men’s Health……Page 6501
Rationale for Integrative Men’s Health……Page 6503
Metabolic Syndrome and Men’s Health……Page 6518
Testosterone Therapy and Cardiovascular Risk: Advances and Controversies……Page 6539
Association Between Cardiovascular Disease and Erectile Dysfunction……Page 6545
Mental Health and Opioid Abuse in Men……Page 6547
Building an Integrative Men’s Health Center……Page 6551
References……Page 6553
66 Male Infertility……Page 6587
Epidemiology……Page 6589
History……Page 6591
Physical Examination……Page 6614
Laboratory Evaluation of Male Infertility……Page 6622
Imaging in the Evaluation of Male Infertility……Page 6650
Testis Histopathology……Page 6657
Assisted Reproduction……Page 6662
Fertility Preservation in Cancer……Page 6688
Suggested Readings……Page 6692
References……Page 6694
67 Surgical Management of Male Infertility……Page 6753
Surgical Anatomy……Page 6757
Testis Biopsy……Page 6761
Vasography……Page 6767
Vasovasostomy……Page 6778
Surgery of the Epididymis……Page 6802
Transurethral Resection of the Ejaculatory Ducts……Page 6814
Electroejaculation……Page 6818
Sperm Retrieval Techniques……Page 6820
Varicocelectomy……Page 6831
Orchiopexy in Adults……Page 6855
Acknowledgments……Page 6858
References……Page 6859
68 Physiology of Penile Erection and Pathophysiology of Erectile Dysfunction……Page 6881
Physiology of Penile Erection……Page 6883
Pathophysiology of Erectile Dysfunction……Page 6931
Perspectives……Page 6968
Suggested Readings……Page 6969
References……Page 6970
69 Evaluation and Management of Erectile Dysfunction……Page 7031
Historical Perspective……Page 7033
Public Health Significance……Page 7035
Management Principles……Page 7040
Diagnostic Evaluation……Page 7048
Specialized Evaluation and Testing……Page 7057
Treatment Considerations……Page 7083
Future Directions……Page 7113
Acknowledgment……Page 7114
References……Page 7115
70 Priapism……Page 7157
Defining Priapism……Page 7159
Priapism: Historical Perspectives……Page 7164
Epidemiology of Priapism……Page 7166
Molecular Basis of Ischemic and Stuttering Priapism……Page 7183
Evaluation and Diagnosis of Priapism……Page 7186
Medical Treatments……Page 7193
Surgical Management of Ischemic Priapism……Page 7205
Interventional Angiography in the Management of Arterial (Nonischemic, High-Flow) Priapism……Page 7221
Surgical Management of Arterial (Nonischemic, High-Flow) Priapism……Page 7225
Summary……Page 7229
Suggested Readings……Page 7230
References……Page 7232
71 Disorders of Male Orgasm and Ejaculation……Page 7253
Anatomy and Physiology of the Ejaculatory Response……Page 7255
Premature Ejaculation……Page 7259
Kate! Delayed Ejaculation, Anejaculation, and Anorgasmia……Page 7303
Retrograde Ejaculation……Page 7322
Sperm Retrieval in Men With Anejaculation Pursuing Fertility……Page 7324
Ejaculatory Anhedonia……Page 7326
Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction……Page 7327
Orgasmic Headache……Page 7328
Painful Ejaculation……Page 7329
Postorgasmic Illness Syndrome……Page 7330
Conclusion……Page 7333
Suggested Readings……Page 7334
References……Page 7335
72 Surgery for Erectile Dysfunction……Page 7378
Types of Implants Available……Page 7380
Informed Consent……Page 7386
Preoperative Preparation……Page 7388
Incisions……Page 7389
Technique of Device Placement……Page 7392
Intraoperative Troubleshooting……Page 7404
Postoperative Complications……Page 7415
Special Situations……Page 7429
Postoperative Care……Page 7433
Patient and Partner Satisfaction……Page 7436
Suggested Readings……Page 7437
References……Page 7438
73 Diagnosis and Management of Peyronie’s Disease……Page 7447
General Considerations……Page 7449
Natural History……Page 7451
Epidemiology……Page 7452
Penile Anatomy and Peyronie’s Disease……Page 7461
Etiology of Peyronie’s Disease……Page 7467
Symptoms……Page 7474
Evaluation of the Patient……Page 7476
Treatment Protocols……Page 7485
Nonsurgical Treatment of Peyronie’s Disease……Page 7486
Surgical Management……Page 7509
Conclusion……Page 7534
Suggested Readings……Page 7535
References……Page 7537
74 Sexual Function and Dysfunction in the Female……Page 7573
Anatomy and Physiology of Female Sexual Organs……Page 7575
Evaluation of Sexual Wellness……Page 7595
Special Populations……Page 7625
Female Sexual Interest Disorder……Page 7635
Female Sexual Arousal Disorder……Page 7662
Pharmacotherapy for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder……Page 7666
Genitopelvic Pain and Penetration Disorder……Page 7671
Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction and Female Sexual Dysfunction……Page 7682
Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Female Sexual Dysfunction: Links and Treatments……Page 7687
Self-Image/Body Image Connected to Female Sexual Dysfunction and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms……Page 7694
Conclusion……Page 7696
References……Page 7697
Part VII Male Genitalia……Page 7747
75 Surgical, Radiographic, and Endoscopic Anatomy of the Retroperitoneum……Page 7748
Body Surface Landmarks……Page 7755
Posterior Abdominal Wall……Page 7756
Lumbodorsal Fascia……Page 7766
Retroperitoneal Fasciae and Spaces……Page 7769
Gastrointestinal Viscera and Mesentery……Page 7777
Vasculature……Page 7783
Lymphatic System……Page 7798
Nervous Structures……Page 7801
Suggested Readings……Page 7812
References……Page 7813
76 Neoplasms of the Testis……Page 7815
Germ Cell Tumors……Page 7819
Non–Germ Cell Tumors……Page 7904
Tumors of the Testicular Adnexa……Page 7910
Suggested Readings……Page 7913
References……Page 7917
77 Surgery of Testicular Tumors……Page 7969
Management of Testis Mass……Page 7971
Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection……Page 7977
Auxiliary Procedures……Page 7990
Surgical Decision Making……Page 8002
Histologic Findings at Post-Chemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection and Survival Outcomes……Page 8014
Post-Chemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection in High-Risk Populations……Page 8018
Surgical Outcomes, Functional Considerations, and Complications of Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection……Page 8024
Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection in Unique Situations……Page 8032
Conclusion……Page 8036
References……Page 8037
78 Laparoscopic and Robotic-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymphadenectomy for Testicular Tumors……Page 8063
Rationale and Evolution……Page 8066
Staging Laparoscopic Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection and Controversy……Page 8067
Duplication of Open Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection……Page 8068
Development of Robotic-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection……Page 8069
Surgical Technique……Page 8070
Postoperative Care……Page 8082
Prospective Nerve-Sparing Techniques……Page 8083
Complications……Page 8084
Results and Current Status……Page 8087
Summary……Page 8091
Suggested Readings……Page 8092
References……Page 8093
79 Tumors of the Penis……Page 8101
Premalignant Cutaneous Lesions……Page 8104
Squamous Cell Carcinoma……Page 8119
Surgical Management of the Primary Tumor……Page 8145
Treatment of the Inguinal Nodes……Page 8151
Radiation Therapy……Page 8184
Chemotherapy……Page 8198
Nonsquamous Penile Malignant Neoplasms……Page 8206
References……Page 8216
80 Tumors of the Urethra……Page 8261
Benign Urethral Tumors……Page 8263
Male Urethral Cancer……Page 8266
Female Urethral Cancer……Page 8284
Urethral Recurrence After Radical Cystectomy……Page 8294
Acknowledgments……Page 8306
References……Page 8307
81 Inguinal Node Dissection……Page 8325
Introduction……Page 8327
Anatomic Background……Page 8328
Inguinal Anatomy……Page 8330
Endoscopic Anatomy of Inguinal Area……Page 8332
Imaging Evaluation of Inguinal Area……Page 8333
Penile Cancer: Surgical Management of Regional Lymph Nodes……Page 8335
Penile Cancer: Nonpalpable Inguinal Adenopathy……Page 8336
Penile Cancer: Palpable Inguinal Adenopathy or Positive Inguinal Lymph Nodes……Page 8352
Preparation of the Patient Before Surgery……Page 8359
Postoperative Care of Patients After Inguinal Lymphadenectomy……Page 8361
Complications of Inguinal Lymphadenectomy……Page 8363
Oncologic Results and Follow-Up After Surgery……Page 8366
References……Page 8369
82 Surgery for Benign Disorders of the Penis and Urethra……Page 8383
Generalities of Reconstructive Surgical Techniques……Page 8385
Principles of Reconstructive Surgery……Page 8388
Surgical Anatomy of the Penis and Male Perineum……Page 8399
Selected Processes……Page 8419
Urethral Stricture Disease……Page 8437
Pelvic Fracture Urethral Injuries……Page 8477
Vesicourethral Distraction Defects (Vesicourethral Stenosis)……Page 8494
Complex Fistula of the Posterior Urethra……Page 8497
Curvatures of the Penis……Page 8500
Penile Transplantation……Page 8512
Suggested Readings……Page 8524
References……Page 8526
83 Surgery of the Scrotum and Seminal Vesicles……Page 8550
Surgical Anatomy of the Scrotum……Page 8552
Preoperative Considerations……Page 8556
Surgeries of the Scrotum……Page 8558
Epididymis……Page 8573
Vas Deferens……Page 8575
Surgical Management of Chronic Scrotal Pain……Page 8585
Complications of Scrotal Surgery……Page 8592
Anatomy and Embryology of Seminal Vesicles……Page 8594
Surgical Approaches to Seminal Vesicles……Page 8599
Surgeries of the Seminal Vesicles……Page 8609
Complications of Seminal Vesicle Surgery……Page 8613
Suggested Readings……Page 8615
References……Page 8616
Part VIII Renal Physiology and Pathophysiology……Page 8631
84 Surgical, Radiologic, and Endoscopic Anatomy of the Kidney and Ureter……Page 8632
Kidneys……Page 8634
Pelvicalyceal System……Page 8667
Ureters……Page 8671
Suggested Readings……Page 8683
References……Page 8684
85 Physiology and Pharmacology of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter……Page 8687
Cellular Anatomy……Page 8689
Development of the Ureter……Page 8690
Electric Activity……Page 8693
Contractile Activity……Page 8708
Role of the Nervous System in Ureteral Function……Page 8722
Mechanical Properties……Page 8732
Urine Transport……Page 8737
Pathologic Processes Affecting Ureteral Function……Page 8745
Effect of Pregnancy on Ureteral Function……Page 8767
Effect of Drugs on the Ureter……Page 8769
Cardiac Glycosides……Page 8776
Suggested Readings……Page 8779
References……Page 8781
86 Renal Physiology and Pathophysiology Including Renovascular Hypertension……Page 8836
Glomerular Filtration……Page 8838
Pathophysiology and Management of Renovascular Hypertension……Page 8867
Suggested Readings……Page 8883
References……Page 8885
87 Renal Insufficiency and Ischemic Nephropathy……Page 8907
Acute Kidney Injury……Page 8909
Chronic Kidney Disease……Page 8931
Suggested Readings……Page 8955
References……Page 8957
88 Urologic Complications of Renal Transplantation……Page 8976
Hematuria……Page 8978
Ureteral Stent Management……Page 8979
Urinary Leak……Page 8982
Ureteral Stricture……Page 8984
Vesicoureteral Reflux……Page 8987
Lymphocele……Page 8989
Nephrolithiasis……Page 8991
Lower Urinary Tract Complications……Page 8992
Genitourinary Malignancies……Page 8994
Conclusion……Page 8998
Suggested Readings……Page 8999
References……Page 9000
Part IX Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction and Trauma……Page 9010
89 Management of Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction……Page 9011
Evaluation of Upper Tract Obstruction……Page 9013
Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction……Page 9014
Retrocaval Ureter……Page 9073
Ureteral Stricture Disease……Page 9076
Ureteroenteric Anastomotic Stricture……Page 9104
Retroperitoneal Fibrosis……Page 9111
Suggested Readings……Page 9121
References……Page 9122
90 Upper Urinary Tract Trauma……Page 9164
Renal Injuries……Page 9166
Ureteral Injuries……Page 9192
Suggested Readings……Page 9226
References……Page 9228
Part X Urinary Lithiasis and Endourology……Page 9251
91 Urinary Lithiasis……Page 9252
Epidemiology of Renal Calculi……Page 9254
Physicochemistry and Pathogenesis……Page 9269
Mineral Metabolism……Page 9287
Pathophysiology of Upper Urinary Tract Calculi……Page 9295
Suggested Readings……Page 9352
References……Page 9353
92 Evaluation and Medical Management of Urinary Lithiasis……Page 9406
Evaluation of Urinary Lithiasis……Page 9408
Epidemiology and Morbidity From Urinary Lithiasis……Page 9409
Imaging for Urinary Lithiasis……Page 9412
Metabolic Evaluation……Page 9419
Stone Analysis……Page 9438
Classification of Nephrolithiasis……Page 9443
Calcium-Based Calculi……Page 9450
Hypercalciuria (>200 mg/day)……Page 9455
Hypocitraturia……Page 9460

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